Solar power station (SPS) – is an engineering construction that converts solar radiation into electrical energy. Depending on the type of construction, the methods for converting the energy of solar radiation differ.
In this section, we will consider SPS using photovoltaic modules (solar cells).
Components of industrial SPP and their functions:
A set of metal mountings (rackings) for a ground-based solar power station is designed to create a support system for cells. The set is designed depending on the geodesy of the site, earth orientation as relating to the cardinal directions. On the finished truss, PV modules are placed vertically at a definite angle to maximize sunlight exposure.
Mountings for solar panels can be made from:
A photovoltaic module (solar cell) – is a renewable source of electrical energy that converts light energy of the sun into electricity using the photovoltaic effect. They are independent of fuel, do not emit harmful substances, do not pollute the environment and do not produce any noise during operation. They are the most environmentally friendly sources of electrical energy.
There are no moving elements in photovoltaic panels, making them stable, reliable and have a long service life.
Photovoltaic modules (solar cells) are divided into several types depending on the manufacturing method:
A grid-tie inverter is a device that converts direct (DC) voltage from renewable energy sources (PV modules) into alternating (AC) voltage, and transfers it directly to the grid. The inverter synchronizes the output voltage with the external grid voltage.
Thus, the grid-tie inverter converts the DC from the solar cells with the necessary frequency values and phase for interfacing with the fixed network. As a rule, the conversion is carried out using PWM – pulse width modulation.
The inverters are equipped with a built-in tracking system of a solar cells maximum capacity point. This allows to get maximum energy with any external weather changes, and generation to the grid is carried out even in overcast weather.
Grid-tie solar inverters of industrial purpose are used to transfer energy from renewable energy sources to a 3-phase grid. The power of such inverters reaches several hundred kW. Such inverters (conversion stations) are built on a modular approach.
SPS operation monitoring - is a process that allows to monitor station operation in real time. The parameters that must be checked, — power, voltage, current, frequency, switches and equipment status. Loads forecasting for several days in advance is also included in the monitoring functions.
Automatic system for commercial accounting of power consumption - is a technological solution that provides: remote data collection from smart metering devices, transfer of the received information to the operator's personal account, processing of the transferred data with subsequent uploading to information systems – 1C or others.
This is a set of organizational and technical tools that allow to measure the amount of consumed and supplied electrical energy in mutual settlements between the producer and the buyer. It includes the collection, storage, processing and transmission of data received from individual and collective metering devices.
How useful is solar energy: from all energy sources it is the most environmentally friendly and 100% inexhaustible. The benefits of solar power stations: a positive impact on the environment, accessibility and inexhaustibility of the source.
Humanity needs energy and actively makes use of non-renewable sources – oil, coal, gas and peat. In a natural way, i.e. very slowly, their reserves continue to form in the bowels of the Earth. This speed does not correspond to the speed of their use and, of course, the extraction of mineral resources worsens the ecological situation.
The best way out – is a transition to renewable energy sources – solar, wind, biogas. Solar energy is developing more actively than others; the geography of using various solar power stations types covers almost the whole world.
Each SPS slows down negative environmental processes. A 1 MW SPS reduces carbon dioxide emissions by 1.3 thousand tons per year. Excess carbon dioxide emissions – are a key driver of climate change on the planet. The more widely solar energy is used to meet humanity's energy needs – the more chances it has to save the planet from destruction.
Solar energy – is the most powerful renewable energy supplier. The sun has illuminating the planet for billions of years, and from entire spectrum of solar radiation, light and heat are the most important for all life on the planet.
Each square meter of the Earth receives an average of 342 watts of energy. This is an average value that includes day and night.
Solar energy is the most environmentally friendly. Its application does not require significant capital investments, it is actually free, generally available and inexhaustible. The disadvantage of solar power supply is the dependence of the power installations output capacity on the geographic latitude of their installation place, season, time of day, cloudiness, degree of atmospheric pollution. But where the solar energy has been successfully introduced, the sunrays heat the water, supply heat and electricity to homes and offices. The scope of application of inexpensive energy is only expanding as it develops and modern technologies make it possible to effectively use any amount of it.
There is a passive or active use of the sun energy. The passive includes: construction of facilities taking into account the climate, selection of building materials for the solar energy use for lighting, heat supply, air circulation in rooms. However, the active use involves the installation of photovoltaic solar panels, tower SPS, dish SPS and solar collectors.
Of all available methods of receiving the alternative energy, the most common is its generation in solar power stations. The largest solar power station on Earth "Ivanpah" with an area of 13 sq. km. located in California in the Mojave Desert. This station produces 30% of all thermal energy produced in the United States.
More than 2 thousand of industrial SPP are operating in Ukraine. Their total capacity is approaching 2.4 GW. Major solar power plants are:
EDS Group has built and commissioned in Ukraine the following SPP:
Large solar power plants in Ukraine are also located in Zaporizhia, Ivano-Frankivsk, and Zakarpattia regions
Solar energy — radiation and light emitted by the Sun. They affect the climate of planet Earth and create conditions for life. What is solar power? This is one of the areas of alternative energy, based on the use of solar radiation to produce energy in some form. The volumes of use are growing: in 1985, the total capacity of the world SPP was 0.021 GW. In 2019, it exceeded 500 GW (3% of global electricity production).
Ukraine is favorably located in terms of solar radiation activity. The territory has indicators from 1400 kW per year per 1 square meter in Kherson region to 1180 KW per year per 1 square meter in Lviv and other western regions. Where are solar power plants being built in Ukraine? In all regions. The highest concentration — in Dnipropetrovsk, Odessa, Nikolayev, Kherson, Zaporizhia regions. The conditional difference in the generation volume between south SPP (in Nikolayev region) and north (in Kyiv or Chernihiv) does not exceed 10%.
Stages of the construction of industrial SPP:
The process takes 0.5-1.5 years, depending on the conditions. How are solar power plants arranged? The main elements of industrial SPP are: photo panels (convert the energy of the sun into direct current) and grid tie inverters connected to them (convert direct current to alternating). Inverters are connected to the common grid through a transformer.
There is no concept of an “average check” for the construction of an industrial SPP. The sum of investment depends on the declared capacity, size of the land, other factors. The conditional level of total costs is $1000 per 1 kW of power. The use of equipment of Ukrainian manufacturers is an opportunity to receive additional state benefits. Where to buy solar power plants? In Ukraine, you can buy ready-made SPP of various capacities that already generate energy. You can buy (rent) a land plot and, with the help of companies providing general contracting services (turnkey construction), build a solar power plant from scratch.
Fields of application:
Advantages of solar energy:
Disadvantages of solar energy:
Until 2020, Ukraine had one of the highest "green tariffs" in Europe. Investments in SPP paid off on average in 3.5-6 years. Under the new conditions, it is necessary to win the auction for allocation of quotas for guaranteed purchase of energy by the state. The payback period under such conditions will be longer, but the overall profitability will increase: the winners of the auctions receive a 20 year guarantee of the purchase of energy at a fixed price.
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What is the land area required for placement of wind plant?
For a 1 MW WPP, 30-50 ares of land will be required.
Windmills require a small area, but along the wide perimeter there should be no forest plantations and other obstacles to the wind.
What is the land area required for placement of solar plant?
For a 1 MW SPP, a minimum of 200 ares of land will be required.
They require a larger installation area than a WPP, and there should be no objects shadowing the panels along the perimeter. It is necessary to take into account the orientation of the land plot, the best arrangement of rackings with PV panels will be on the southern slope.
To locate the hybrid plant, depending on the capacity, an amount of land equal to the sum, respectively, of the area for the photovoltaic panels and the area for the wind turbines will be required. The requirements for the landscape are the same: do not shadow the sun and do not obstruct the wind.
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