Wind or solar power plants? Features of land use for projects

ветрянные или солнечные электростанции

Wind turbine (WPP) - engineering construction that converts kinetic energy of wind into mechanical energy of rotor rotation with further conversion into electrical energy. The main types of wind turbines - horizontal impeller wind turbine and vertical carousel-type wind turbines.

What is the land area required for placement of wind plant?

For a 1 MW WPP, 30-50 ares of land will be required.

Windmills require a small area, but along the wide perimeter there should be no forest plantations and other obstacles to the wind.

Solar power plant (SPP) - engineering construction that converts solar radiation into electrical energy. Depending on the type of construction, the methods for converting the energy of solar radiation differ.

What is the land area required for placement of solar plant?

For a 1 MW SPP, a minimum of 200 ares of land will be required.

They require a larger installation area than a WPP, and there should be no objects shadowing the panels along the perimeter. It is necessary to take into account the orientation of the land plot, the best arrangement of rackings with PV panels will be on the southern slope.

Hybrid WPP/SPP systems - a wind turbine equipped with solar panels with accumulators. Mutual "insurance" of alternative energy sources is provided (the wind at night and in daytime, sun in daytime, accumulator – at any time). The controller regulates the degree of charge of the accumulators and controls the processes of system interaction.

To locate the hybrid plant, depending on the capacity, an amount of land equal to the sum, respectively, of the area for the photovoltaic panels and the area for the wind turbines will be required. The requirements for the landscape are the same: do not shadow the sun and do not obstruct the wind.

Let's compare the features of the choice of land for solar power plants (type - photovoltaic panels) with wind in the main parameters:

Parameter

WPP

SPP

Geography,

weather dependence

For WPP:

When choosing a land plot, climatic characteristics must be taken into account (wind map of Ukraine).

In any region, regardless of climatic characteristics, specialized companies conduct mandatory measurements of wind speed - at least 1 year.

It is advisable to install wind turbines in areas where the average wind speed is more than 8 m/s. The blades of large turbines start rotational motion in 4 m/s wind; maximum energy conversion efficiency is achieved at 12 m/s.

The main advantage of WPP over SPP – is all-year operation without a decrease in productivity in the autumn-winter period and at night.

For SPP:

When choosing a land plot, climatic characteristics must be taken into account (solar radiation map of Ukraine).

Solar projects are more mobile, they can be built in any region.

 If you look at the solar radiation map, you can see that the solar radiation level doesn’t fall below three units across approximately 80% of the country's territory, which looks promising as compared to other European countries.

The main advantage of SPP over WPP – there is no need to carry out long-term (at least 1 year) and costly wind measurements in the selected plot. There are all data for the calculations.

Features of land use

For WPP:

During the construction, lands are allotted for short-term and long-term use.

The peculiarity of land use of WPP projects is that turbines occupy only 1% of the entire territory of the wind farm, while 99% of the territory can be occupied by agriculture or for other types of activities (Denmark, the Netherlands, Germany experience).

The foundation of the wind turbine has a diameter of about 10 m, it is completely recessed underground. This means that land almost to the very base of the tower can be leased for agricultural use and receive additional income.

For SPP:

An allotment of land is carried out for the construction of industrial solar power plants (by decision of a special competent authority – Stategeocadastre).

Plots with an increased level of waterlogging, with heavy erosion, with traces of damage from specific productions or other characteristics making these lands unsuitable for agricultural purposes are very often assigned to SPP.

The term of papers formation

For WPP:

More than 1 year

For SPP:

6-9 months

Impact on the environment, environmental friendliness

For WPP:

The work of WPP is accompanied by noise, vibration and flickering shadows.

Wind power plants by themselves do not pollute the environment but in the cycle of production processes a large amount of CO2 emissions is released into the atmosphere.

WPP harm to birds is present when the power plant is located in the path of their migration.

For SPP:

SPP operates silently.

Solar power plants do not pollute the environment.

Ecological harm is present in the process of production of photo panels and depends on the type of toxic elements used, as well as the technological processes of their production and disposal.

EDS Development company prepares a full package of documents for land plots for industrial solar power plant construction.

If you are interested in renewable energy project, as an object of investment in Ukraine, - let's consider and compare WPP and SPP even more detailed according to the main economic parameters *:

*data - January 2020

Parameter

WPP

SPP

Equipment service life

For WPP:

The estimated service life of modern WPP is 25 years.

As a rule, during the entire service life, the wind turbine will need at least 2-3 times a major repair the cost of which can reach the cost of the entire installation.

For SPP:

Degradation of panels usually occurs at a speed of not more than 0.7-0.8% per year of the rated power of the panels.

High-quality inverter will last up to 25 years.

A minimal degree of degradation is characteristic of monocrystalline modules, as well as thin-film modern hybrids. Effective service life is at least 25-30 years;

Polycrystalline panels live somewhat less - 20-25 years. Although in practice, their use may last a little longer.

Cost of construction, development

For WPP:

An industrial wind turbine is built on the prepared site in 7-10 days. Obtaining approvals for construction from regulatory authorities may take a year or more.

The cost of construction of a 1 MW WPP is 1150-1250 thousand euros without VAT depending on the cost of connection.

The high cost of WPP equipment is the main component of the price.

WPP projects are more complex in terms of development and require longer and more complicated preparation.

For SPP:

The implementation period of the SPP takes 6-9 months and depends on the readiness of the documents for the land plot, conditions of point of connection to the power grid, availability of technical conditions and the general condition of the land plot.

The construction costs of a 1 MW SPP amount to 600-700 thousand euros without VAT, depending on the cost of connection.

Payback

For WPP:

5-7 years - period of return on investment

For SPP:

5-7 years - period of return on investment

Capacity utilization factor (ICUF) - determines the profitability of the project

For WPP:

WPP ICUF = 35 - 40%

i.e. per 1 MW of installed capacity WPP produce twice as much electricity SPP

For SPP:

SPP ICUF = 15%

“Green” tariff

For WPP:

Existing WPP and producers that have signed a contract for the sale of electricity with the state-owned enterprise “Energorynok” before 31/12/19 (after signing the contract, WPP must be built in 3 years) - sell e/e according to the “green” tariff:

Tariff per 1 kW for WPP = 9,05 euro cent

The difference between tariffs for solar and wind power plants has reduced by 2020, this gives WPP projects an advantage in return on invested capital.

For SPP:

Existing SPP and producers that have signed a contract for the sale of electricity with the state-owned enterprise “Energorynok” before 31/12/19 (after signing the contract, SPP must be built in 2 years) - sell e/e according to the “green” tariff:

Tariff per 1 kW for SPP = 11.26 euro cent

Auctions since 2020

For WPP:

Participation in auctions since 2020 for industrial WPP is mandatory with a capacity of more than 5 MW.

The winners who quote the lowest price will receive the right to sell electricity (with an obligation to build a WPP in 3 years).

 If the manufacturer fails to meet the deadlines he loses his warranty coverage. *

* The content of the law №8449-d of April 25, 2019

For SPP:

Participation in auctions since 2020 for industrial SPP is mandatory with a capacity of more than 1 MW.

The winners who quote the lowest price will receive the right to sell electricity (with an obligation to build a SPP in 3 years).

 If the manufacturer fails to meet the deadlines he loses his warranty coverage. *

* The content of the law №8449-d of April 25, 2019

Share in the production of e/e

For WPP:

1.1% of the total e/e production in Ukraine at the end of 2019.

For SPP:

2.2% of the total e/e production in Ukraine at the end of 2019.

EDS Engineering provides services for the design, construction, launch of industrial solar power plants (SPP) in Ukraine.

 

The development of alternative energy in Ukraine began with high “green” tariff rates. Profitability of projects remains attractive, despite a gradual reduction in tariff, due to decreasing costs of the construction of SPP and WPP.

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