In the description of Ready to build land plots , our specialists always indicate the connection point parameters of the future industrial SPS to external power grids.
The most rational voltage class, from the point of view of minimum losses and capital investments, is determined at the stage of long-term planning of the electrical grid operating modes. In case of the land prepared by EDS-Development for the construction of industrial SPSs, it was selected taking into account the already existing substations in the immediate vicinity with the corresponding voltage class. This allows to carry out the connection without costly reconstructions.
Let’s consider the basic concepts and classification of electrical grids for different voltage classes.
According to the voltage level, all voltage classes are conventionally divided into the following groups:
Ultra high voltage class - from 1000 kV.
Extra high voltage class - from 330 kV to 750 kV.
High voltage class - from 110 kV to 220 kV.
Medium voltage class - from 1 kV to 35 kV.
Low voltage class - up to 1 kV.
Voltage class is the voltage value that is used in electrical grids to transmit electrical energy to consumers. Depending on the classification of electrical grids, the voltage class also changes.
The need to introduce such a concept was due to an increase in the efficiency of distribution of electrical energy and a decrease in losses during its transmission. At low voltage, the transmission of electrical power will have large losses due to the high values of the flowing current.
Thus, it is advisable to transmit large powers at high voltage.
Energy companies are upgrading their electrical grids by raising the voltage class. Why? This reduces costs and losses during the transportation of electrical energy directly to the consumer.
Classification of electrical grids for voltage classes depending on the scope of application and purpose:
General service grids - used in household, agricultural and small industrial format.
Technological facilities grids - serve utility facilities and large industrial enterprises.
Self-contained power supply grids - used for mobile or remote facilities, such as ships or spacecraft.
Contact grids - transmit electrical energy to vehicles, for example, trams or locomotives.
Classification of electrical grids for voltage classes according to the scale characteristics and dimensions of the grid:
Backbone grids - link consumption centers with separate regions:
Voltage - extra high and high.
High power flow.
Regional grids - powered by backbone grids and focused on serving large consumers - cities or regions.
Voltage – high and medium.
High power flow.
Area grids - receive electrical energy from regional grids, usually do not have their own power sources, are focused on serving small and medium consumers.
Voltage – medium and low.
Light power flow.
Internal grids - distribute electrical energy to small spaces, such as a city. Internal grids can have a redundant (own) power supply.
Voltage – low.
Light power flow.
Electrical wiring - supplies power to individual buildings, workshops or premises.
Voltage – low (domestic).
Low power flow.
Classification of electrical grids for voltage classes by type of current:
Three-phase AC grids - current is transmitted through three wires with an alternating current phase shift in each of them by 120 degrees relative to the others. Each wire in it is considered a phase with a certain voltage, which acts as the 4th conductor.
One-phase AC grids - current is transmitted through two wires due to domestic electrical wiring from a substation or distribution board.
DC grids - for some self-contained power supply grids and a number of special extra-high voltage grids.
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